With the EU, Spain has benefited culturally and economically, becoming a country with a highly developed economy and high quality of life for its citizens. Factoring in the enviable temperate and Mediterranean climate, Spain is one of the most attractive countries for migrants, not only from Latin America, Africa and Asia, but also for migrants from the US, Canada, United Kingdom, Russia and northern Europe.

Note: The content of this page is merely indicative. Only the provisions of the regulations in force at the time the application is submitted is applicable.

Madrid, España

Madrid. Photo by José Alejandro Cuffia on Unsplash

The Spanish nationality by choice is a benefit that Spanish legislation offers to those foreign citizens who are in the following cases:

  • People who are or have been subject to the parental rights of a Spanish citizen.
  • People whose father or mother would have been Spanish and would have been born in Spain.
  • Persons whose determination of the affiliation (that is, the establishment of who their parents are) or of their birth in Spain, occurs after eighteen years of age: considering that there is a term to apply for the nationality of 2 years since filiation or birth in Spain is determined.
  • People whose adoption by Spanish citizens occurs after eighteen years of age, also taking into account that there is a period of 2 years since the adoption occurred to exercise the right to opt for Spanish nationality.

Usually, this is the way many foreign citizens use for their minor children - those who have acquired Spanish nationality by residence; obtained in such a way that nationals of other countries can access Spanish nationality.

How is it requested?

The request must always be made in the Civil Registry of the applicant's address. In the case of children under 14 years of age, a prior authorization file must be processed by the Judge in Charge of the Civil Registry so that the legal guardian can carry out the process on behalf of the minor.

Apart from the data declaration sheet, documentation proving the identity of the applicant must also be provided; as well as permanent and stable domicile in Spain. A birth certificate of the foreign Local Civil Registry, duly legalized, and a literal birth certificate of the applicant's father or mother issued by the Spanish Civil Registry must be included.


Nationality procedures are not something simple, so receiving advice can guide you throughout the process to make it easier and less tedious. You may also be interested in the following resources:

The process of legalization of documents can in some cases be complicated, lengthy and cumbersome for the people involved. Aware of this problem, we have enabled a telephone number (+34) 943-425-726 and an email address help@echeverriaabogados.es to answer questions. If you write an email, please include first name, last name and contact phone number.

Get an expert evaluation!

Book a 60-minute online consultation for your Spanish citizenship process and get useful advice on how you can achieve success.

Book your consultation now